Oxycodone Withdrawal Symptoms, Timeline, Causes And Treatment

  1. Causes, Signs and Symptoms of Oxycodone Withdrawal
  2. Severity of Withdrawal Symptoms
  3. Treatment for Withdrawal from Oxycodone
  4. Help Someone Through Withdrawal

What is Oxycodone? Are There Withdrawals from Oxycodone Use?

Oxycodone (Percodan®, Oxycontin®) is an opiate drug, mainly used for the relief of pain.

Repeated use of Oxycodone, like the other opiates, leads to long-lasting changes in the brain (neuroadaptation) which alter voluntary control over the use of the drug (Volkow and Li, 2009).

What is Oxycodone? Are There Withdrawals from Oxycodone Use?

Changes in brain pathways caused by Oxycodone use endure long after an individual stops taking it, causing negative physical and psychological/emotional effects once the drug use is reduced or abruptly suspended (Koob and LeMoal, 2006).

When this occurs, the negative effects may range from mild discomfort to extreme distress, depending on how much was used and how long the individual was using (Russell, 1976). This is withdrawal.

The intensity of withdrawal from Oxycodone will depend on the:

  • Duration of use.
  • Amount of use.
  • Degree of neuroadaptation (Wright et al., 2009).

Route of administration appears to be important as well, with significantly higher withdrawal symptoms for injection drug users (Tetrault and O’Connor, 2009).

Taking Oxycodone intravenously may result in more severe withdrawal symptoms.For example, if you have been using Oxycodone intravenously, and have been ‘shooting up’ for some time, you will more likely experience withdrawal symptoms with greater intensity and for longer duration than someone who takes Oxycodone for pain as prescribed, but who suspends use of the medication or reduces their use of it.

Other psychological factors can contribute significantly to the distressing experience of withdrawal, such as:

  • Poor self-esteem.
  • Poor coping mechanisms.
  • Environmental stressors, such as low socioeconomic status.

These factors often lead the individual to relapse to remit the withdrawal symptoms (Volkow and Li).

If you use oxycodone or other opiates and are concerned about withdrawal and its effects, please seek medical assistance or call one of our specialists at 1-888-993-3112Who Answers? for help.


Causes, Signs and Symptoms of Oxycodone Withdrawal

There are 2 phases of the withdrawal process in individuals who have become dependent on the use of Oxycodone:

Man experiencing insomnia

  • Acute withdrawal.
  • Protracted Abstinence/Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome (Sometimes known as PAWS).

Acute Withdrawal

Acute withdrawal is the initial phase of withdrawal in which an individual typically experiences symptoms such as:

  • Gastrointestinal distress (diarrhea and vomiting).
  • Sweating.
  • Muscle and joint pain.
  • Insomnia.
  • Marked anxiety.
  • Depression.
  • Unease.
  • Irritability (dysphoria).

This can be very uncomfortable, but is not dangerous or life-threatening. Without treatment, this phase of withdrawal runs its course in 7-10 days with symptoms peaking after 72 hours (Koob and LeMoal).

Protracted Abstinence Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS)

PAWS in individuals with a chronic history of dependence on opiates such as Oxycodone can last up to 6 months or longer. This is the phase of withdrawal in which an individual is most prone to relapse.

While there can be continued physical symptoms such as those listed above, there is also a very strong motivational component to PAWS, in which a person may experience ‘gray like’ moods, where little or nothing gives them pleasure.

One individual expressed it as follows: ‘When I stop [drug use] I just feel vacant, with no direction or energy and that lasts for months’ (Stewart, 1987, in Koob and LeMoal). With time and treatment, this too, will pass.


Severity of Withdrawal Symptoms

For those individuals unfortunate to go through it, withdrawal from Oxycodone and other opiates is unpleasant, uncomfortable, painful, and depressing, but rarely dangerous or life threatening.

While addiction to opiates such as Oxycodone is a chronic relapsing disease, it is highly treatable and manageable. If you want more information on treatment options, please call us at 1-888-993-3112Who Answers?

Who is Prone to Severe Withdrawal from Oxycodone?

Pregnant Women

Both pregnant women who are opioid-dependent and their fetus have an increased risk of severe withdrawal, which can contribute to:

  • Preeclampsia.
  • Spontaneous abortion.
  • Disrupted placenta.

The neonate (newborn) in withdrawal from the drug is at increased risk due to dehydration, which, in this case, requires immediate medical attention, as it can be fatal.

Individuals in Palliative Care

If a patient is switched from Oxycodone to a rapid-onset/short-acting opioid such as Alfentanil, their quality of life can be adversely affected (Carmichael and Lee, 2010).

Elderly

Dehydration is a common symptom of acute withdrawal. The elderly need plenty of hydration if experiencing withdrawal, especially if they take diuretic medications.

Individuals with High Blood Pressure

In withdrawal, there is an increase in blood pressure that should not be ignored in patients with a previous diagnosis of hypertension.


Treatment for Withdrawal from Oxycodone

CNS Depressants Icon

Pharmacotherapies (Medication)

Opioid/opiate medications that treat the acute phase of withdrawal include methadone or buprenorphine (Suboxone ® or Subutex ®) which are slowly tapered or ‘dosed down’ under medical supervision.

Non-opioid medications used to treat the acute phase of withdrawal include Clonidine, a blood pressure medication, which can control increases in blood pressure and other autonomic nervous system functions.

For the PAWS syndrome, Naltrexone (Vivitrol®) is an option. It is not an opiate/opioid and blocks the effects of opiate/opioid drugs such as Oxycodone in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Methadone can add to symptom relief. Buprenorphine, also reduces craving and does not produce the euphoric ‘high’ of other opiates/opioids.

Therapy Icon

Psychosocial Treatments (Counseling, Therapy, Support) 

Non-drug treatments for opiate/opioid withdrawal include individual counseling and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which emphasizes teaching the client how to take charge of their thinking and behavior. Individual Psychology therapy emphasizes personal insight and awareness of current life circumstances, leading to a healthy lifestyle (Howatt, 2005).

Support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous provide a spiritual path of recovery after withdrawal for drug-dependent persons who are also addicts.

Stay Calm Icon

Self Identity 

Spirituality—and not institutional religion—is becoming a core theme in psychosocial treatment of opiate/opioid addiction. Formerly the proverbial elephant in the therapeutic setting, spirituality emphasizes the importance of relationship to self, others, and a transcendent order in which questions of meaning and purpose, belonging and trusting, and values and actions consistent with important ideals are integral to recovery and relapse prevention (Cook, 2004; Masuda, 2014).

If you would like more information about medications or counseling treatment options, please call 1-888-993-3112Who Answers?.

Inpatient vs. Outpatient Treatment

  • Hospitalization

    Hospitalization is appropriate for patients whose assessed need cannot be treated safely in an outpatient or ER setting, because of:

    • Medically complicated withdrawal from Oxycodone or other opiates/opioids.
    • Co-occurring medical or psychiatric conditions, e.g. very depressed with suicidal ideation.
    • Situations in which the patient poses an imminent threat to others (Barthwell and Brown, 2009).

    Partial hospitalization with intensive outpatient treatment is available for those whose treatment was initiated in the ER/hospital, and who need ongoing contact with treatment personnel to monitor behavior and risk of relapse.

    Lack of motivation, and a return to the environments that can trigger relapse will require ongoing contact with medical personnel along with outpatient treatment to build on the gains made initially (Barthwell and Brown).

  • Outpatient

    Outpatient treatment is appropriate for those individuals whose compliance with treatment protocols is anticipated, and where there is a supportive home/community environment. A comprehensive approach, using medication and a variety of psychosocial interventions is optimal, along with behavioral monitoring.

    Outpatient treatment programs include intensive day treatment with an emphasis on group counseling, some of which include services to treat co-occurring medical or psychiatric conditions.

    Outpatient treatment also enables an individual to fulfill work obligations and to live at home with family, reducing financial burdens and providing the support of loved ones (including the dogs and cats).

  • Residential Programs

    Residential Programs provide 24-hour care and can be short-term, providing treatment based on a modified 12-step program with therapy/counseling for 30-90 days. The long-term treatment facilities are sometimes referred to as therapeutic communities (TC’s), and can last from 6-12 months in a highly structured program geared to the ‘resocialization’ of the individual.

    In general, longer programs have better outcomes. These facilities range from luxurious TC’s in exotic places, to local community TC’s, providing the program’s entire community, including other residents, staff, and the social context as active components of treatment (Barthwell and Brown).

Reduced healthcare coverage for addictions treatment has resulted in programs of shorter duration. While recovery from withdrawal and relapse prevention are primary outcomes of treatment, insurance, and out-of-pocket expenses will have to be considered by the client/patient.

However, withdrawal treatment complications require residential/hospital care and must be provided regardless of the cost.

Oxycodone is one of many opioids and, like others in this class of drugs, acute and protracted withdrawal can complicate co-occurring illnesses.


Help Someone Through Withdrawal

People in withdrawal also need to feel that they are in a safe place.

The degree of discomfort experienced in withdrawal can be significantly reduced by the:

  • Simple reassurance of the course of withdrawal by a friend or family member.
  • Provision of accurate information about what will happen.
  • Offer of continued support (Gossop, 2007).

People in withdrawal also need to feel that they are in a safe place and need continued hydration (water). Orange juice and honey are believed by some to be well tolerated, replenishing vital minerals lost to dehydration.

Anecdotally, long hot showers are suggested to remit the severe muscle or joint pain and rest is important.

If you’re concerned that you or a loved one is suffering under the burden of dependency on Oxycodone, call 1-888-993-3112Who Answers? to talk to someone about addiction treatment options.

Our trained treatment support staff are available 24 hours a day. For you, or for someone you love, this is the first day of the rest of your life.


References

  • Barthwell, A.G., and Brown, L.S., (2009) The Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Overview. In Ries, R.K., Fiellin, D.A., et al., eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine. 349-359. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
  • Carmichael, J.P., and Lee, M.A., (2010). Symptoms of Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome after Switch from Oxycodone to Alfentanil. J Pain Symptom Manage, 40(6), e4-6.
  • Cook, C.C. (2004). Addiction and Spirituality. Addiction, 99:539-51.
  • Gossop, M., (2007). Living with Drugs. Sixth Edition. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company.
  • Howatt, W.A., (2005). Cognitive Behavioral Models. In Coombs, R.H., ed., Addiction Counseling Review. 337-355. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Koob, G.F., and LeMoal, M., (2006). Neurobiology of Addiction. Boston, MA: Academic Press/Elsevier Inc.
  • Masuda, A., ed., (2014). Mindfulness & Acceptance in Multicultural Competency: A Contextual Approach to Sociocultural Diversity in Theory & Practice. Oakland, CA: Context Press/New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
  • Tetrault, J.M., O’Connor, P.G., 2009. Management of Opioid Intoxication and Withdrawal. In Ries, R.K., Fiellin, D.A., et al., eds. (op.cit.).
  • Volkow, N.D., and Li, T-K., (2009). Drug Addiction: The Neurobiology of Behavior Gone Awry. In Ries, R.K., Fiellin, D.A. et al., eds. (op. cit).
  • Wright, T.M., Cluver, J.S., and Myrick, H., (2009). Management of Intoxication and Withdrawal: General Principles. In Ries, R.K., Fiellin, D.A., et al., eds. (op.cit.).